Monday, February 13, 2012

Brief history of Madagascar

The birth of Madagascar:
In 1500, Diego Diaz, Portuguese Navigator en route to India, was the first European to approach the coast of Madagascar, which received the name of Île Saint-Laurent (the Saint of the day of discovery: August 10, 1500). Diego Diaz met the Merina in the Highlands, and the Sakalava West, the Betsimisaraka in Eastern and the Bara then South. The Portuguese established in turn a few counters that particular quickly and disappeared; they abandoned the island.
During the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, the island St. Lawrence was used to harbor of supplies not only for Portuguese seafarers but also to their rivals, the Dutch, the English and the French. But the relationship between the Europeans and the Malagasy were not always peaceful and, hunted by Aboriginal people, the Dutch failed to create sustainable institutions; they are keen to trade between Europe and India, before preferring the Cape Colony where they are entered in the 17th century. The English, who later came to the mid-17th century, succeeded not more to move to Saint Augustan and Nosy Be. It was not until the mid-17th century to see the French settling in Fort-Dauphin in the South of the island.

Royalty in Madagascar:
The unification of the Merina Kingdom and Madagascar
In the meantime, Aboriginal people had gathered on the island to form kingdoms, both (Menabe, Boina) East and West (Betsimisaraka: "the many inseparable") and South (Betsileo). At the centre of the plateau, the Hova (Merina) founded the fortified city of Antananarivo (Tananarive). They named the Imerina country and its inhabitants gave the name of Merina. During the 17th century, Madagascar was dominated by the multiplicity of the Malagasy small kingdoms. Among the attempts of conquest, the most remarkable is perhaps the Sakalava who, in the 17th century, dominated the entire coast is and there laid the foundation of a true empire. However, the Sakalava power was undermined by succession battles and buta to the opposition of the Merina to which the Sakalava last finally submit.
The unification of the country was carried out in the century following the sovereign Merina Andrianampoinimerina (circa 1787-1810) who consolidated the small kingdoms of the Highlands, establishes a genuine legislation and established a local administration. His son and successor, Radama 1 (1810-1828), gave to the demands of the British installed on Mauritius and concerned the France foothold on Madagascar. He signed in 1817 a Treaty of friendship with the British who wrote the Merina of modern weapons and led indigenous troops; then the British missionaries founded schools and introduced Christianity. English support, Radama 1 continued the unification undertaken by his father and extended his rule over a large part of the island. In linguistic matters, the work of 1 Radama was important. First, he promoted the development of education experienced remarkable growth as early as 1820. Schooling was in the mother tongue of pupils and masters Malagasy could resort to English (the language of the missionaries) for access to the books and sources of Western knowledge. In doing so, the King gave the Malagasy of writing in Latin characters and was translating the Bible into Malagasy. For their part, a few Catholic schools in Antananarivo provided instruction in French.
The death of Radama I, his widow, Ranavalona 1st, him as in 1828 and put an end to the policy of reforms carried out by her late husband. She decided to close schools and hunt the British missionaries; She eventually expelling all Europeans at the same time where the Sakalava is placed under the protection of the France, who occupied the island Nosy-Be in 1841. The French in took advantage to return to the Madagascar.
Ranavalona 1st death in 1861, his son Radama II, raised by Europeans, reopened the country to colonial powers. He attributed to some French businessmen of exorbitant economic powers. Malagasy, concerned about the forced Europeanization, oligarchs did strangle the King in 1863. The following year, the head of the army, a Merina, became Prime Minister, married successively the Queens Rasoherina, Ranavalona II and Ranavalona III, and had the real power. To avoid the European domination of his country, he chooses to modernize and converts to Protestantism with a large part of the people in 1869. He remained at the head of the country for more than thirty years. During the reign of the Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony, Catholic missionaries returned and schools multiplied. The Jesuits settled in Antananarivo and Toamasina. As early as 1862, they published a series of textbooks and religious books for the use of students and the Malagasy Catholics. While the Protestants (London Missionary Society, Anglicans, Lutherans, and Quakers) taught in Malagasy, Catholics, especially in urban schools, taught the French to their students. However, because of the conversion to Protestantism in 1869 of the Queen and the Prime Minister, the Protestant schools were much more successful. Of course, the school spread more the French English, given that in the Protestant schools were taught in Malagasy.
In 1883, the France held (East Coast) Toamasina and Mahajanga (West Coast). Two years later, she obtained permission to move to Antsirabe. The ambiguous Treaty of 1885 (seen as a Treaty of friendship by the Merina), the France imposed on the island a quasi protectorate: and then a French General moved to Tananarive with a military escort and officially represented Madagascar in its external relations. The French protectorate was recognized, in 1890, by Great Britain and the Germany, but it was refused by the Madagascar Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony.
In retaliation, Paris sent troops (15,000 men) in Antananarivo. The Gallieni General, became Governor, undertook the "pacification" and the unifi

French settlement in Madagascar:
 In 1642, Jacques de Prongs, committed the French company of the East founded by Cardinal Richelieu (Minister of Louis XIII), moved with a few French in the southeast of the Madagascar . Prongs were officially charged to take possession of the island, ground clearance and trade. The following year, on the order of Richelieu, he founded in honor of the future King Louis XIV Fort-Dauphin who thus became an important stopover on the way to India. In 1649, Étienne de Flacourt, sent by the company from the East to Fort-Dauphin to restore order in Madagascar, referred Jacques de Promise in France. The latter had shocked Aboriginal people by selling slaves in the Dutch established in Mauritius. Étienne de Flacourt, who had received the title of "Captain General of the island of Madagascar", stayed on the island until 1655. He published in 1658 a history of the large island of Madagascar, including a 3500 Malagasy words dictionary: this book will remain for two centuries the main source of knowledge on Madagascar and its inhabitants.
The colony of Madagascar, including the island was called Île Dauphine, diminishing after the departure of Étienne de Flacourt in 1655, as his successors had no value. The new East India Company made less profit, ships rarely came and the settlers is discouraged; the East India Company then turned to the India and disinterest of the establishment of Madagascar. Missionaries were sent to convert to Catholicism the neighboring populations of Fort-Dauphin; they drafted a bilingual catechism and a dictionary of the Malagasy language, instituted a seminary and sent in France some Malagasy youth to complete their education. After the massacre of the garrison of Fort-Dauphin in 1674 by the local populations, 63 French survivors embarked for the Île Bourbon (the current island of the meeting) then deserted. Subsequently, Governors of Bourbon used Madagascar as a reserve of slaves to their. island. For their part, hackers, especially of the French, the English and the Americans used the island as a base for their shipments and their catch in the Indian Ocean.
With the abandonment of Madagascar, the French effort in the Indian Ocean was postponed on the Île Bourbon, who had received the last settlers of Fort-Dauphin and new inputs, the French and the Malagasy slaves. Mauritius, abandoned by the Dutch in 1712, was occupied by the settlers of Bourbon in 1721; Rodriguez Island was populated later. Subsequently, the Seychelles became also the French islands. From 1720, the Saudi coffee was introduced to Bourbon and soon made the fortune. To engage in this culture, should be a food supply (rice, cattle, etc.) and labor (slaves). Grande Île, close, reappeared as the ideal supplier. From there came the idea for the French of there again trade.
French colonization resumed only after the Treaty of Paris of 1763 (while Mauritius, Rodriguez and the Seychelles became English), under the tutelage of Louis XV, and Louis XVI, and was continued, after the French Revolution, by Napoleon. Counters were restored on the East Coast, and a Governor was appointed to Toamasina (North-Central). He had to begin by fighting the Hova (Merina) which then dominated by the Sakalava and strong support from the English, claimed to appropriate the entire island. The Sakalava were defeated and were, in 1840, forced to place under the French protectorate only territories that belonged to them again: the islands of Mayotte (Comoros) and Nosy-Be (North-West of Madagascar).
Guardianship French (1896)
In 1896, the French Parliament voted the annexation of Madagascar as a colony. With full military and civilian powers, General Gallieni began to organize the country by creating administrative frameworks and Aboriginal justice, by establishing a secular education to promote the French language became mandatory and by heavy taxes. The city of Antsiranana, in the North, became the most important French naval base in this region of the Indian Ocean and thus protected the road of Indochina. The island attracted growers and European, but the dispossession of indigenous lands and the imposition of the native code company’s rekindled Malagasy nationalism.

The independence of Madagascar:
The March towards the independence of Madagascar
After the removal of the MDRM party by colonial rule and exile in France of its three leaders (Joseph Ravohangy, Joseph Raseta and Jacques Rabemananjara), a man, Philibert Tsiranana, through charisma, had known as human key to March toward the independence of Madagascar. The Elimination of the Malagasy political Exchequer MDRM party does not mean the Elimination of all its managers or of all Malagasy nationalists who say fight for independence. Except that, in the light of the circumstances, both on the domestic and on the international scene, those who claimed to be "heirs" of MDRM did not apply the subtlety and the political intelligence who were once (with the trio of head) force party. Instead of playing the moderation, they borrowed the hard line of the movement. This condemned their action to fail because their message goes poorly with Malagasy public opinion.
Instead, Philibert Tsiranana, yet a person who was a time member of the Padesm (party designated as anti-MDRM), former of the SFIO, former force policy "New Action madécasse", is the person who knows best wear the "messages" unifying usually held by the MDRM.
With the PSD party (social democratic party, including then Madagascar and the Comoros and affiliated with SFIO: French section of the international workers, the ancestor of the French Socialist Party) it creates on December 28, 1956, it based its policy on three pillars: (1) independence claim, (2) research unit national, and (3) friendship with the France. This strongly reinforces its popularity throughout the territory of Madagascar.
In the legislative elections of January 1956, he even seduced the FNM party (Front national Malagasy) led by executives Merina, former members of the MDRM, and he is elected triumphantly MLA in the constituency of Mahajanga (West coast of Madagascar).
Once elected, and in March 1956, he says the dissatisfaction of the Malagasy for "the French union" and asked the colonial France the repeal of the Act of annexation of August 1896. In the referendum of 28 September 1958 concerning the integration of Madagascar in the French Community (the only road legal for Madagascar to gain independence), Philibert Tsiranana leads campaign for the "Yes" while the UPM (union of the Malagasy population), a party which said from also branches to Antananarivo the MDRM (but rather the hard wing), roll for the "no". The "Yes" overrides widely with 77% of the vote. The victory of the "Yes" comfort the position of Philibert Tsiranana, and the push to demand the repeal of the Act of annexation of the month of August 1896 and the erection of an Autonomous Republic of Madagascar. In other words, some of the main objectives of the MDRM.
To put all chances of his side to be able to lead the search for national independence, Philibert Tsiranana, and his political allies introduce "Malagasy Autonomous Republic" at the Congress of the provincial Councilors held in Toamasina on October 14, 1958. Also, he became interim Prime Minister. The next day, the France, developed with the fait accompli, cannot see the staleness of the Act of annexation of 1896.
Two days later, on 16 October 1958, the Congress elected the majority list by province vote a constituent Assembly composed of 90 members. Angry to have been outvoted by this mode of election, the UPM, the FNM and the Associations of friends of peasants (parties located essentially in the single province of Antananarivo) merged on October 19, 1958 to create the AKFM (Congress Party for the independence of Madagascar). This new party, led by Pastor Richard Andriamanjato was soviétophile and became the main opposition to the Government.
The constituent Assembly adopted a constitution, is permeating many institutions of the fifth French Republic but with a few characteristics (a President and a Vice-President, provinces have provincial councils enjoying a degree of autonomy etc.), developed by the Government on 29 April 1959. The aim was to put more pressure on the colonial authority to be granted independence.
May 1, 1959, a voters College is constituted, comprising the Parliament, provincial councilors and delegates from the Commons, to elect the President of the Malagasy Republic. Four candidates are running: Philibert Tsiranana, Basile Razafindrakoto, nominate Rajoelson and Maurice Crumer. On the 114 votes cast, Philibert Tsiranana, without surprises gets 113 votes and elected President of the Malagasy Republic. With this increased power, Philibert Tsiranana is required with General de Gaulle to obtain sovereignty of Madagascar.
In February 1960, a Malagasy delegation headed by André Resampy went to Paris to negotiate the transfer of skills. Philibert Tsiranana much insisted that all representatives of the Malagasy national forces are represented in the delegation to influence the negotiation for the Malagasy national interest. Only the AKFM refuses. On 02 April 1960, Malagasy agreements are signed between the French Prime Minister Michel Debré and Malagasy President Philibert Tsiranana. June 04, Madagascar Parliament adopted unanimously these agreements. On June 26, 1960, Madagascar became independent. The independence of Madagascar is thus obtained with the outstanding assistance of almost all the forces of the Malagasy Nation although followed by peaceful efforts were far from those that are more easily.


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